In order to protect occupants and contents from outside conditions, buildings create a semi-enclosed environment that contains heat and pollutants that are generated internally or enter through the façade. In the warmer months of the year solar gains and high external temperatures generally lead to overheating, creating a need for a cooling system. The ventilation air that replaces contaminated air throughout the building is often the predominant medium for transfer of heat and pollutants between indoor and outdoor environments.
In many cases, buildings are designed using energy-inefficient indoor climate control strategies. This approach is made possible through intensive use of HVAC equipment. In order to provide environmentally sustainable designs energy-efficient, naturally-driven cooling systems can be employed with air movement through the building being driven by temperature differences (the stack effect), or the wind, or a combination of the two. In these systems, the cooling power is variable and often small, making performance simulation and consequent design decisions more challenging and critical to overall success.
Until the advent of HVAC systems, naturally driven cooling systems were the only choice and designers used simple rules-of-thumb. Modern building systems performance standards create a need for accurate and flexible simulation models. Providing improved analysis tools is particularly critical to increased use of low energy, naturally driven cooling systems, because, in these cases, the cooling power is variable and often small.
|Geneva||Bragança||SF Fed||SD CM||Coimbra|
|Tavira||SD SC||M. Azedão||Brescia|